Fig. 9. Exogenous 4-HNE disrupted the pancreas, induced hyaloid vascular alterations, and can be rescued via l-Carnosine and PK11195 treatment, respectively. (A). 10 μM 4-HNE treatment induced decreased dimensions of the primary pancreas in Tg(hb9:GFP) and reduced trend of β cell mass in Tg(ins:nfsB-mCherry) zebrafish larvae at 72 hpf, which were rescued by 5 mM Carnosine but not 10 μM PK11195 intervention. Grey box indicates the β cell mass area; White scale bar = 100 μm, grey scale bar = 50 μm. (B–C). Quantification of area size of the early pancreas (B) and β cell mass (C) in violin plots, n = 17–26 per group. (D) 4-HNE incubation led to increased IOC branch diameters (white arrow) and sprouts (white delta) in hyaloid vasculature of Tg(fli1:EGFP) zebrafish larvae at 120 hpf, which were rescued via 10 μM PK11195 intervention. White scale bar = 20 μm. (E–F). Quantification of the IOC branch diameters and sprouts in violin plots, n = 10–20 per group. For statistical analysis one-way ANOVA followed by Sidak's multiple comparison test was applied, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001.