Mutant phenotypes in D. rerio, D. aesculapii and their hybrids of genes required for heterotopic interactions.
In D. rerio mutations in, a, Cx39.4 (luchs), b, Cx41.8 (leopard), and c, Igsf11 (seurat) lead to spotted patterns, whereas, d, mutations in Kcnj13 (obelix) result in fewer and wider stripes. In D. aesculapii, e–h, mutations in the orthologous genes lead to the complete loss of any pattern. In D. rerio dominant alleles of Kcnj13, i, cause broader stripes and irregularities when heterozygous. Double mutants, j, Cx39.4 k.o.; Kcnj13 k.o., loose almost all melanophores and pattern. Interspecific hybrids between D. rerio and D. aesculapii, which are both mutant, k, for Cx41.8, or, l, for Kcnj13, show patterns of spots or wider stripes similar to the corresponding D. rerio mutants (b, d; n = 15). All images show representative examples of the corresponding genotypes. Scale bars correspond to 1 mm.