Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) in fish: current knowledge and future perspectives

Chen, S.N., Zou, P.F., Nie, P.
Immunology   151: 16-25 (Review)
Registered Authors
Nie, Pin
LGP2, MDA5, RIG-I-like receptor, fish, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I
MeSH Terms
  • Animals
  • Biological Evolution
  • DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics
  • DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism*
  • Feedback, Physiological
  • Fishes*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • Infections/immunology*
  • Interferon Type I/metabolism
  • RNA Helicases/genetics
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Species Specificity
  • Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
  • Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism*
28109007 Full text @ Immunology
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) -like receptors (RLRs) are found conservatively present in teleost fish. All three members, RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2, together with the downstream molecules such as MITA, TRAF3 and TBK1, have been identified in a range of fish species. However, it is unexpected that RIG-I has not been reported in fish of Acanthopterygii, and it would be important to clarify the presence and role of the RIG-I gene in a broad range of taxa in Teleostei. RLRs in fish can be induced in vivo and in vitro by viral pathogens as well as synthetic dsRNA, poly(I:C), leading to the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Bacterial pathogens, such as Edwardsiella tarda, and their components, such as lipopolysaccharide are also found to induce the expression of RLRs, and whether such induction was mediated through the direct recognition by RLRs or through crosstalk with other pattern recognition receptors recognizing directly bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns awaits to be investigated. On the other hand, RLR-activated type I IFN production can be negatively regulated in fish by molecules, such as TBK-1-like protein and IRF10, which are found to negatively regulate RIG-I and MAVS-activated type I IFN production, and to block MITA or bind ISRE motifs, respectively. It is considered that the evolutionary occurrence of RLRs in fish, and their recognized ligands, especially those from their fish pathogens, as well as the mechanisms involved in the RLR signalling pathways, are of significant interest for further investigation.
Genes / Markers
Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes