ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-150512-5
Sensing and surviving hypoxia in vertebrates
Jonz, M.G., Buck, L.T., Perry, S.F., Schwerte, T., Zaccone, G.
Date: 2016
Source: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences   1365(1): 43-58 (Journal)
Registered Authors: Jonz, Michael G., Perry, Steve F., Schwerte, Thorsten
Keywords: anoxia, brain, chemoreceptor, gill, lung
MeSH Terms:
  • Adaptation, Physiological/physiology*
  • Animals
  • Chemoreceptor Cells/metabolism*
  • Gills/metabolism
  • Homeostasis/physiology
  • Humans
  • Hypoxia/metabolism*
  • Hypoxia/physiopathology
  • Skin/metabolism
  • Skin/physiopathology
  • Zebrafish
PubMed: 25959851 Full text @ Ann N Y Acad Sci
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ABSTRACT
Surviving hypoxia is one of the most critical challenges faced by vertebrates. Most species have adapted to changing levels of oxygen in their environment with specialized organs that sense hypoxia, while only few have been uniquely adapted to survive prolonged periods of anoxia. The goal of this review is to present the most recent research on oxygen sensing, adaptation to hypoxia, and mechanisms of anoxia tolerance in nonmammalian vertebrates. We discuss the respiratory structures in fish, including the skin, gills, and air-breathing organs, and recent evidence for chemosensory neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in these tissues that initiate reflex responses to hypoxia. The use of the zebrafish as a genetic and developmental model has allowed observation of the ontogenesis of respiratory and chemosensory systems, demonstration of a putative intracellular O2 sensor in chemoreceptors that may initiate transduction of the hypoxia signal, and investigation into the effects of extreme hypoxia on cardiorespiratory development. Other organisms, such as goldfish and freshwater turtles, display a high degree of anoxia tolerance, and these models are revealing important adaptations at the cellular level, such as the regulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in defense of homeostasis in central neurons.
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