Short and long peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) in zebrafish, with findings of multiple PGRP homologs in teleost fish

Chang, M.X., Nie, P., and Wei, L.L.
Molecular immunology   44(11): 3005-3023 (Journal)
Registered Authors
Chang, Mingxian, Nie, Pin
Peptidoglycan recognition protein, Long PGRP, Short PGRP, Fish, Zebrafish, Japanese pufferfish, Spotted green pufferfish
MeSH Terms
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Carrier Proteins*/chemistry
  • Carrier Proteins*/genetics
  • Carrier Proteins*/immunology
  • Databases, Genetic
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Models, Molecular*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Molecular Structure
  • Phylogeny
  • Protein Structure, Secondary
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Homology
  • Species Specificity
  • Takifugu
  • Tetraodontiformes
  • Zebrafish
17296228 Full text @ Mol. Immunol.
Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) specifically binds to peptidoglycan and is considered to be one of the pattern recognition proteins in the innate immunity of insect and mammals. Using a database mining approach and RT-PCR, multiple peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) like genes have been discovered in fish including zebrafish Danio rerio, Japanese pufferfish TakiFugu rubripes and spotted green pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis. They share the common features of those PGRPs in arthropod and mammals, by containing a conserved PGRP domain. Based on the predicted structures, the identified zebrafish PGRP homologs resemble short and long PGRP members in arthropod and mammals. The identified PGRP genes in T. nigroviridis and TakiFugu rubripes resemble the long PGRPs, and the short PGRP genes have not been found in T. nigroviridis and TakiFugu rubripes databases. Computer modelling of these molecules revealed the presence of three alpha-helices and five or six beta-strands in all fish PGRPs reported in the present study. The long PGRP in teleost fish have multiple alternatively spliced forms, and some of the identified spliced variants, e.g., tnPGRP-L3 and tnPGRP-L4 (tn: Tetraodon nigroviridis), exhibited no characters present in the PGRP homologs domain. The coding regions of zfPGRP6 (zf: zebrafish), zfPGRP2-A, zfPGRP2-B and zfPGRP-L contain five exons and four introns; however, the other PGRP-like genes including zfPGRPSC1a, zfPGRPSC2, tnPGRP-L1-, tnPGRP-L2 and frPGRP-L (fr: Takifugu rubripes) contain four exons and three introns. In zebrafish, long and short PGRP genes identified are located in different chromosomes, and an unknown locus containing another long PGRP-like gene has also been found in zebrafish, demonstrating that multiple PGRP loci may be present in fish. In zebrafish, the constitutive expressions of zfPGRP-L, zfPGRP-6 and zfPGRP-SC during ontogeny from unfertilized eggs to larvae, in different organs of adult, and the inductive expression following stimulation by Flavobacterium columnare, were detected by real-time PCR, but the levels and patterns varied for different PGRP genes, implying that different short and long PGRPs may play different roles in innate immune response.
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Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes