ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-201120-24
Daily mitochondrial dynamics in cone photoreceptors
Giarmarco, M.M., Brock, D.C., Robbings, B.M., Cleghorn, W.M., Tsantilas, K.A., Kuch, K.C., Ge, W., Rutter, K.M., Parker, E.D., Hurley, J.B., Brockerhoff, S.E.
Date: 2020
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   117: 28816-28827 (Journal)
Registered Authors: Brockerhoff, Susan, Hurley, James B., Parker, Ed
Keywords: circadian, mitochondria, photoreceptors, retina, zebrafish
MeSH Terms:
  • Animals
  • Circadian Rhythm/physiology
  • Dark Adaptation/physiology
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism
  • Mitochondria/metabolism*
  • Mitochondrial Dynamics/physiology*
  • Retina/metabolism
  • Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells/metabolism*
  • Synapses/metabolism
  • Zebrafish
PubMed: 33144507 Full text @ Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
Cone photoreceptors in the retina are exposed to intense daylight and have higher energy demands in darkness. Cones produce energy using a large cluster of mitochondria. Mitochondria are susceptible to oxidative damage, and healthy mitochondrial populations are maintained by regular turnover. Daily cycles of light exposure and energy consumption suggest that mitochondrial turnover is important for cone health. We investigated the three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructure and metabolic function of zebrafish cone mitochondria throughout the day. At night retinas undergo a mitochondrial biogenesis event, corresponding to an increase in the number of smaller, simpler mitochondria and increased metabolic activity in cones. In the daytime, endoplasmic reticula (ER) and autophagosomes associate more with mitochondria, and mitochondrial size distribution across the cluster changes. We also report dense material shared between cone mitochondria that is extruded from the cell at night, sometimes forming extracellular structures. Our findings reveal an elaborate set of daily changes to cone mitochondrial structure and function.