ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-201002-231
Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Regulates the Oligodendrocyte Cytoskeleton during Myelination
Musah, A.S., Brown, T.L., Jeffries, M.A., Shang, Q., Hashimoto, H., Evangelou, A.V., Kowalski, A., Batish, M., Macklin, W.B., Wood, T.L.
Date: 2020
Source: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience   40: 2993-3007 (Journal)
Registered Authors: Kowalski, Amy, Macklin, Wendy B.
Keywords: ArpC3, MBP, cytoskeleton, mTOR, myelination, oligodendrocyte
MeSH Terms:
  • Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex/genetics
  • Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex/metabolism
  • Actins/genetics
  • Actins/metabolism
  • Animals
  • Axons
  • Cell Differentiation/genetics
  • Cytoskeleton/genetics*
  • Kinesin/genetics
  • Kinesin/metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Myelin Basic Protein/genetics
  • Myelin Proteolipid Protein/genetics
  • Myelin Proteolipid Protein/metabolism
  • Myelin Sheath/genetics*
  • Oligodendroglia*/ultrastructure
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Stem Cells
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/physiology*
  • Zebrafish
PubMed: 32139584 Full text @ J. Neurosci.
ABSTRACT
During differentiation, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) extend a network of processes that make contact with axons and initiate myelination. Recent studies revealed that actin polymerization is required for initiation of myelination whereas actin depolymerization promotes myelin wrapping. Here, we used primary OPCs in culture isolated from neonatal rat cortices of both sexes and young male and female mice with oligodendrocyte-specific deletion of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) to demonstrate that mTOR regulates expression of specific cytoskeletal targets and actin reorganization in oligodendrocytes during developmental myelination. Loss or inhibition of mTOR reduced expression of profilin2 and ARPC3, actin polymerizing factors, and elevated levels of active cofilin, which mediates actin depolymerization. The deficits in actin polymerization were revealed in reduced phalloidin and deficits in oligodendrocyte cellular branching complexity at the peak of morphologic differentiation and a delay in initiation of myelination. We further show a critical role for mTOR in expression and localization of myelin basic protein (Mbp) mRNA and MBP protein to the cellular processes where it is necessary at the myelin membrane for axon wrapping. Mbp mRNA transport deficits were confirmed by single molecule RNA FISH. Moreover, expression of the kinesin family member 1B, an Mbp mRNA transport protein, was reduced in CC1+ cells in the mTOR cKO and in mTOR inhibited oligodendrocytes undergoing differentiation in vitro These data support the conclusion that mTOR regulates both initiation of myelination and axon wrapping by targeting cytoskeletal reorganization and MBP localization to oligodendrocyte processes.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Myelination is essential for normal CNS development and adult axon preservation and function. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has been implicated in promoting CNS myelination; however, there is a gap in our understanding of the mechanisms by which mTOR promotes developmental myelination through regulating specific downstream targets. Here, we present evidence that mTOR promotes the initiation of myelination through regulating specific cytoskeletal targets and cellular process expansion by oligodendrocyte precursor cells as well as expression and cellular localization of myelin basic protein.
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