Acute toxicities of fluorene, fluorene-1-carboxylic acid, and fluorene-9-carboxylic acid on zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio): Molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicities of fluorene-1-carboxylic acid
- Kim, Y.C., Lee, S.R., Jeon, H.J., Kim, K., Kim, M.J., Choi, S.D., Lee, S.E.
- Chemosphere 260: 127622 (Journal)
- Registered Authors
- Kim, Myoung-Jin
- Bile acid production, Fluorene-1-carboxylic acid, Heart development, Pericardial edema, Yolk sac and spinal deformity
- MeSH Terms
- Carboxylic Acids/metabolism
- Embryo, Nonmammalian/drug effects
- Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity*
- 32673875 Full text @ Chemosphere
Kim, Y.C., Lee, S.R., Jeon, H.J., Kim, K., Kim, M.J., Choi, S.D., Lee, S.E. (2020) Acute toxicities of fluorene, fluorene-1-carboxylic acid, and fluorene-9-carboxylic acid on zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio): Molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicities of fluorene-1-carboxylic acid. Chemosphere. 260:127622.
In this study, fluorene (FL), FL-1-carboxylic acid (FC-1), and FL-9-carboxylic acid (FC-9) were investigated to understand their acute toxicity by measuring inhibitory effects on hatching rates and developmental processes of zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). For exposure concentrations up to 3000 μg/L, FC-1 alone showed acute toxicity at 1458 μg/L for LC50 value. FC-1 caused yolk sac and spinal deformities, and pericardial edema. Molecular studies were undertaken to understand FC-1 toxicity examining 61 genes after exposure to 5 μM (equivalent to LC20 value of FC-1) in embryos. In the FC-1-treated embryos, the expression of the cyp7a1 gene, involved in bile acid biosynthesis, was dramatically decreased, while the expression of the Il-1β gene involved in inflammation was remarkably increased. In addition to these findings, in FC-1-treated embryos, the expression of nppa gene related to the differentiation of the myocardium was 3-fold increased. On the other hand, cyp1a, cyp3a, ugt1a1, abcc4, mdr1, and sult1st1 responsible for detoxification of xenobiotics were upregulated in FC-9-treated embryos. Taken together, carboxylation on carbon 1 of FL increased acute toxicity in zebrafish embryos, and its toxicity might be related to morphological changes with modification of normal biological functions and lowered defense ability.
Genes / Markers
Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes