|ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-200114-11|
The immunotoxicity and neurobehavioral toxicity of zebrafish induced by famoxadone-cymoxanil
Cheng, B., Zhang, H., Hu, J., Peng, Y., Yang, J., Liao, X., Liu, F., Guo, J., Hu, C., Lu, H.
|Source:||Chemosphere 247: 125870 (Journal)|
|Registered Authors:||Lu, Huiqiang, Yang, Jian|
|Keywords:||Famoxadone-cymoxanil, Immunotoxicity, Locomotor behavior, Zebrafish|
|PubMed:||31931321 Full text @ Chemosphere|
Cheng, B., Zhang, H., Hu, J., Peng, Y., Yang, J., Liao, X., Liu, F., Guo, J., Hu, C., Lu, H. (2020) The immunotoxicity and neurobehavioral toxicity of zebrafish induced by famoxadone-cymoxanil. Chemosphere. 247:125870.
ABSTRACTAs a new protective and therapeutic fungicide, studies on famoxadone-cymoxanil are rare, and its toxicity to aquatic organisms has not been reported. In the present study, zabrafish embryos were exposed to several concentrations of famoxadone-cymoxanil at 10 hpf. Then, the changes of their shape, heart rate, development and function of innate and adaptive immune cells, oxidative stress, apoptosis, the expression of apoptosis-related genes and immune-related genes, the locomotor behavior were observed and detected in acute toxicity of famoxadone-cymoxanil. Our studies showed that, after exposure to famoxadone-cymoxanil, zebrafish embryos had decreased heart rate, shortened body length, swollen yolk sac. Secondly, the number of innate and adaptive immune cells was significantly reduced; and neutrophil migration and retention at the injury area were inhibited, indicating the developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity of famoxadone-cymoxanil on the zebrafish. We also found that the oxidative stress related indicators of embryos were changed significantly, and apoptosis were substantially increased. Further investigation of changes of some key genes in TLR signaling including TLR4, MYD88 and NF-κB p65 revealed that the mRNA expression of these genes was up-regulated. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression of some proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL6 and IL-1β was also up-regulated. In addition, the activity, the total distance, time and average speed were decreased along with the increase of exposure concentration. The absolute turn angle, sinuosity and the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were also increased. These results suggested that famoxadone-cymoxanil can induce developmental toxicity, immunotoxicity and neurobehavioral toxicity in zebrafish larvae.