ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-191223-7
CRISPR-generated Nrf2a loss- and gain-of-function mutants facilitate mechanistic analysis of chemical oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in zebrafish
Mills, M.G., Ramsden, R., Ma, E.Y., Corrales, J., Kristofco, L.A., Steele, W.B., Saari, G.N., Melnikov, F., Kostal, J., Kavanagh, T.J., Zimmerman, J.B., Voutchkova-Kostal, A.M., Brooks, B.W., Coish, P., Anastas, P.T., Gallagher, E.
Date: 2019
Source: Chemical Research in Toxicology   33(2): 426-435 (Journal)
Registered Authors: Gallagher, Evan P.
Keywords: none
MeSH Terms:
  • Animals
  • Benzene Derivatives/toxicity*
  • Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/drug effects*
  • Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Gain of Function Mutation*/drug effects
  • Loss of Function Mutation*/drug effects
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics*
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress/drug effects*
  • Oxidative Stress/genetics
  • Zebrafish/genetics*
  • Zebrafish Proteins/genetics*
  • Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism
  • tert-Butylhydroperoxide/toxicity*
PubMed: 31858786 Full text @ Chem. Res. Toxicol.
The transcription factor Nrf2a induces a cellular antioxidant response and provides protection against chemical-induced oxidative stress, as well as playing a critical role in development and disease. Zebrafish are a powerful model to study the role of Nrf2a in these processes, but have been limited by reliance on transient gene knockdown techniques or mutants with only partial functional alteration. We developed several lines of zebrafish carrying different null (loss of function, LOF) or hyperactive (gain of function, GOF) mutations to facilitate our understanding of the Nrf2a pathway in protecting against oxidative stress. The mutants confirmed Nrf2a dependence for induction of the antioxidant genes gclc, gstp, prdx1, and gpx1a, and identified a role for Nrf2a in the baseline expression of these genes, as well as for sod1. Specifically, the 4-fold induction of gstp by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) in wild type fish was abolished in LOF mutants. In addition, baseline gstp expression in GOF mutants increased by 12.6-fold, and in LOF mutants was 0.8-fold relative to wild type. Nrf2a LOF mutants showed increased sensitivity to the acute toxicity of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) and tBHP throughout the first four days of development. Conversely, GOF mutants were less sensitive to CHP toxicity during the first four days of development and were protected against the toxicity of both hydroperoxides after 4 dpf. Neither gain nor loss of Nrf2a modulated the toxicity of R-(-)-carvone (CAR), despite the ability of this compound to potently induce Nrf2a-dependent antioxidant genes. Similar to other species, GOF zebrafish mutants exhibited significant growth and survival defects. In summary, these new genetic tools can be used to facilitate the identification of downstream gene targets of Nrf2a, better define the role of Nrf2a in the toxicity of environmental chemicals, and further the study of diseases involving altered Nrf2a function.