ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-190922-8
Clethodim exposure induced development toxicity and behaviour alteration in early stages of zebrafish life
Wang, H., Zhou, L., Meng, Z., Su, M., Zhang, S., Huang, P., Jiang, F., Liao, X., Cao, Z., Lu, H.
Date: 2019
Source: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)   255: 113218 (Journal)
Registered Authors: Lu, Huiqiang
Keywords: Clethodim, Development toxicity, Neurotoxicity, Zebrafish
MeSH Terms:
  • Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
  • Animals
  • Cyclohexanones/toxicity*
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian/drug effects
  • Herbicides/metabolism
  • Herbicides/toxicity*
  • Larva/drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress/drug effects
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity*
  • Zebrafish/embryology
  • Zebrafish/metabolism
PubMed: 31541821 Full text @ Environ. Pollut.
Clethodim is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, however, its potential toxic effects on organisms and the underlying toxicity mechanism are still poorly understood. In this study, zebrafish embryos at 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) were exposed to 10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, and 30 mg/L clethodim for up to 24 hpf, and zebrafish larvae at 6 days post-fertilization (dpf) were exposed to the same density gradient for 24 h. Our results showed that clethodim could cause head and cardiovascular malformations in embryos: blurred brain ventricles, unapparent brain regions, condensation of nucleus and cytoplasm in brain cells, increased intercellular space, developmental malformations of eyes and ears, reduced neonatal neurons, disorder migration of neural ridge cells; morphological aberrations of the vascular ICM, slowing of heart beat and blood flow, reduction of circulating red blood cells, and delayed development of head and tail blood vessels. These defects could be a result of clethodim-induced oxidative stress and decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, which in turn affected the expression of neurodevelopmental genes, decreased ATPase activity, and ultimately led to developmental malformations. The swimming behaviour of zebrafish larvae was observed to decrease with increasing concentration of clethodim exposure, but the angular velocity and mobility increased. These could be due to reduced AChE activity and disturbed gene expression of GABA, dopamine and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems, which thus altered the locomotor behaviour. In summary, we found that clethodim induces developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae.