PUBLICATION

ASSESSMENT OF THE ACUTE TOXICITY, UPTAKE AND BIOTRANSFORMATION POTENTIAL OF BENZOTRIAZOLES IN ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) LARVAE COMBINING HILIC- WITH RPLC-HRMS FOR HIGH THROUGHPUT IDENTIFICATION

Authors
Damalas, D.E., Bletsou, A.A., Agalou, A., Beis, D., Thomaidis, N.S.
ID
ZDB-PUB-180424-3
Date
2018
Source
Environmental science & technology   52(10): 6023-6031 (Journal)
Registered Authors
Beis, Dimitris
Keywords
none
MeSH Terms
  • Animals
  • Biotransformation
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Chromatography, Reverse-Phase*
  • Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  • Larva
  • Triazoles
  • Zebrafish*
PubMed
29683664 Full text @ Env. Sci. Tech.
Abstract
The current study reports on the toxicity, uptake and the biotransformation potential of zebrafish (embryos and larvae) exposed to Benzotriazoles (BTs). Acute toxicity assays were conducted. Cardiac function abnormalities (pericardial edema and poor blood circulation) were observed from the phenotypic analysis of early life zebrafish embryos after BTs exposure. For the uptake and biotransformation experiment, extracts of whole body larvae were analyzed using liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-HRMS/MS). The utility of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) as complementary technique to reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) in the identification process was investigated. Through HILIC analyses, additional biotransformation products (bio-TPs) were detected, due to enhanced sensitivity and better separation efficiency of isomers. Therefore, reduction of false negative results was accomplished. Both oxidative (hydroxylation) and conjugative (glucuronidation, sulfation) metabolic reactions were observed, while direct sulfation proved the dominant biotransformation pathway. Overall, 26 bio-TPs were identified through suspect and non-target screening workflows, 22 of them reported for the first time. 4-methyl-1-H-benzotriazole (4-MeBT) demonstrated the highest toxicity potential and was more extensively biotransformed, compared to 1-H-benzotriazole (BT) and 5-methyl-1-H-benzotriazole (5-MeBT). The extent of biotransformation proved particularly informative in the current study, to explain and better understand the different toxicity potentials of BTs.
Genes / Markers
Figures
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Expression
Phenotype
Mutation and Transgenics
Human Disease / Model Data
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Fish
Antibodies
Orthology
Engineered Foreign Genes
Mapping
Errata and Notes