ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-170214-19
Carotenoid glycosides from cyanobacteria are teratogenic in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo model
Jaja-Chimedza, A., Sanchez, K., Gantar, M., Gibbs, P., Schmale, M., Berry, J.P.
Date: 2017
Source: Chemosphere   174: 478-489 (Journal)
Registered Authors: Gibbs, Patrick
Keywords: Carotenoid, Cyanobacteria, Myxoxanthophyll, Retinoid, Teratogenicity, Zebrafish
MeSH Terms:
  • Animals
  • Carotenoids/toxicity*
  • Cyanobacteria/chemistry
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian/drug effects
  • Embryonic Development/drug effects
  • Eutrophication
  • Fresh Water
  • Glycosides/toxicity*
  • Teratogens/toxicity*
  • Tretinoin
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity*
  • Zebrafish
PubMed: 28189893 Full text @ Chemosphere
Toxigenicity of cyanobacteria is widely associated with production of several well-described toxins that pose recognized threats to human and ecosystem health as part of both freshwater eutrophication, and episodic blooms in freshwater and coastal habitats. However, a preponderance of evidence indicates contribution of additional bioactive, and potentially toxic, metabolites. In the present study, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo was used as a model of vertebrate development to identify, and subsequently isolate and characterize, teratogenic metabolites from two representative strains of C. raciborskii. Using this approach, three chemically related carotenoids - and specifically the xanthophyll glycosides, myxol 2'-glycoside (1), 4-ketomyxol 2'-glycoside (2) and 4-hydroxymyxol 2'-glycoside (3) - which are, otherwise, well known pigment molecules from cyanobacteria were isolated as potently teratogenic compounds. Carotenoids are recognized "pro-retinoids" with retinoic acid, as a metabolic product of the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids, established as both key mediator of embryo development and, consequently, a potent teratogen. Accordingly, a comparative toxicological study of chemically diverse carotenoids, as well as apocarotenoids and retinoids, was undertaken. Based on this, a working model of the developmental toxicity of carotenoids as pro-retinoids is proposed, and the teratogenicity of these widespread metabolites is discussed in relation to possible impacts on aquatic vertebrate populations.