ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-160519-35
Neuroendocrine control of ionic balance in zebrafish
Kwong, R.W., Kumai, Y., Perry, S.F.
Date: 2016
Source: General and comparative endocrinology   234: 40-6 (Review)
Registered Authors: Perry, Steve F.
Keywords: Calcium, Cortisol, Ionic regulation, Ionocyte, Neuroendocrine control, Sodium
MeSH Terms:
  • Animals
  • Ion Transport/physiology*
  • Neurosecretory Systems*
  • Water-Electrolyte Balance
  • Zebrafish
  • Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism*
PubMed: 27179885 Full text @ Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emerging model for integrative physiological research. In this mini-review, we discuss recent advances in the neuroendocrine control of ionic balance in this species, and identify current knowledge gaps and issues that would benefit from further investigation. Zebrafish inhabit a hypo-ionic environment and therefore are challenged by a continual loss of ions to the water. To maintain ionic homeostasis, they must actively take up ions from the water and reduce passive ion loss. The adult gill or the skin of larvae are the primary sites of ionic regulation. Current models for the uptake of major ions in zebrafish incorporate at least three types of ion transporting cells (also called ionocytes); H(+)-ATPase-rich cells for Na(+) uptake, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-rich cells for Ca(2+) uptake, and Na(+)/Cl(-)-cotransporter expressing cells for both Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake. The precise molecular mechanisms regulating the paracellular loss of ions remain largely unknown. However, epithelial tight junction proteins, including claudins, are thought to play a critical role in reducing ion losses to the surrounding water. Using the zebrafish model, several key neuroendocrine factors were identified as regulators of epithelial ion movement, including the catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline), cortisol, the renin-angiotensin system, parathyroid hormone and prolactin. Increasing evidence also suggests that gasotransmitters, such as H2S, are involved in regulating ion uptake.