Evolution of the Inflammatory Response in Vertebrates: Fish TNF-{alpha} Is a Powerful Activator of Endothelial Cells but Hardly Activates Phagocytes

Roca, F.J., Mulero, I., López-Muñoz, A., Sepulcre, M.P., Renshaw, S.A., Meseguer, J., and Mulero, V.
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)   181(7): 5071-5081 (Journal)
Registered Authors
Mulero, Victor, Renshaw, Steve A.
MeSH Terms
  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemotaxis, Leukocyte/immunology
  • Endocardium/immunology
  • Endocardium/microbiology
  • Endocardium/pathology
  • Endocardium/virology
  • Endothelial Cells/immunology*
  • Endothelial Cells/metabolism
  • Endothelial Cells/pathology*
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Immunity, Innate/genetics
  • Inflammation Mediators/physiology*
  • Phagocytes/immunology
  • Phagocytes/metabolism
  • Phagocytes/pathology*
  • Rhabdoviridae Infections/immunology
  • Rhabdoviridae Infections/metabolism
  • Rhabdoviridae Infections/pathology
  • Sea Bream/immunology
  • Streptococcal Infections/immunology
  • Streptococcal Infections/metabolism
  • Streptococcal Infections/pathology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/physiology*
  • Zebrafish/genetics
  • Zebrafish/immunology
  • Zebrafish Proteins/physiology*
18802111 Full text @ J. Immunol.
TNF-alpha is conserved in all vertebrate classes and has been identified in all taxonomic groups of teleost fish. However, its biological activities and its role in infection are largely unknown. Using two complementary fish models, gilthead seabream and zebrafish, we report here that the main proinflammatory effects of fish TNF-alpha are mediated through the activation of endothelial cells. Thus, TNF-alpha promotes the expression of E-selectin and different CC and CXC chemokines in endothelial cells, thus explaining the recruitment and activation of phagocytes observed in vivo in both species. We also found that TLR ligands, and to some extent TNF-alpha, were able to increase the expression of MHC class II and CD83 in endothelial cells, which might suggest a role for fish endothelial cells and TNF-alpha in Ag presentation. Lastly, we found that TNF-alpha increases the susceptibility of the zebrafish to viral (spring viremia of carp virus) and bacterial (Streptococcus iniae) infections. Although the powerful actions of fish TNF-alpha on endothelial cells suggest that it might facilitate pathogen dissemination, it was found that TNF-alpha increased antiviral genes and, more importantly, had little effect on the viral load in early infection. In addition, the stimulation of ZF4 cells with TNF-alpha resulted in increased viral replication. Together, these results indicate that fish TNF-alpha displays different sorts of bioactivity to their mammalian counterparts and point to the complexity of the evolution that has taken place in the regulation of innate immunity by cytokines.
Genes / Markers
Mutations / Transgenics
Human Disease / Model
Sequence Targeting Reagents
Engineered Foreign Genes