|ZFIN ID: ZDB-PUB-050419-3|
Functional characterization of full-length TLR3, IRAK-4, and TRAF6 in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Phelan, P.E., Mellon, M.T., and Kim, C.H.
|Source:||Molecular immunology 42(9): 1057-1071 (Journal)|
|Registered Authors:||Kim, Carol H.|
|Keywords:||Toll; Toll-like receptor; TLR3, IRAK-4, TRAF6, snakehead rhabdovirus; Edwardsiella tarda; Zebrafish, Danio rerio|
|PubMed:||15829296 Full text @ Mol. Immunol.|
Phelan, P.E., Mellon, M.T., and Kim, C.H. (2005) Functional characterization of full-length TLR3, IRAK-4, and TRAF6 in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Molecular immunology. 42(9):1057-1071.
ABSTRACTRecently, the zebrafish, Danio rerio, has been recognized as a useful model for infectious disease and immunity. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family is an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune system that responds to specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) during an infection. This study reports the identification and characterization of a full-length orthologue of mammalian TLR3, and the key TLR pathway signaling molecules IRAK-4 and TRAF6 in the zebrafish. Sequence analysis of zebrafish TLR3 (zfTLR3), IRAK-4 (zfIRAK-4), and TRAF6 (zfTRAF6) revealed conserved domains shared with insect and mammalian genes. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that all three genes are expressed in a variety of adult tissues and during embryonic development. In in situ hybridization, we showed that zfTLR3, zfIRAK-4, and zfTRAF6 are present in distinct regions of the developing brain at 22hpf and that zfTRAF6 was observed in the developing medial neural tube. Overexpression of zfIRAK-4, zfTRAF6, or a mutant zfTLR3 construct was able to stimulate NF-kappaB activation in ZFL cells as measured by a cotransfected NF-kappaB-luciferase reporter plasmid. Messenger RNA expression profiles of each gene in zebrafish embryos and adults were examined by quantitative real-time PCR following infection with snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) or Edwardsiella tarda. Following exposure to SHRV, only zfTLR3 and zfTRAF6 mRNA transcripts were upregulated. Interestingly, exposure of fish to E. tarda resulted in an unexpected increase in mRNA expression of zfTLR3, as well as the anticipated upregulation of zfIRAK-4 and zfTRAF6 mRNA transcripts. These results demonstrate that zebrafish possess conserved TLR-signaling pathways, further emphasizing the utility of the zebrafish as a model for vertebrate immunology.