ZFIN ID: ZDB-PERS-060323-1
Grimes, Adrian
Email: grimes@duke.edu
URL: http://kirbylab.duhs.duke.edu/homepages/adrian.htm
Affiliation: Kirby lab
Address: The Kirby Lab Neonatal Perinatal Research Institute Box 3179 Bell Building Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710 USA
Country: United States
Phone: (919) 668-2311
Fax: (919) 668-1599

B.Sc. Hons. (First Class) London Univesity, Birkbeck College, 2000.
M.Res. Applied Fish Biology, University of Plymouth, 2001.
Ph.D. Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA, 2007.

I gained my PhD from the Medical University of South Carolina, Molecular and Cellular Biology and Pathobiology program. However, I conducted my thesis research in Peggy Kirby's lab at Duke University Medical Center.
I am investigating the development of the arterial pole in the zebrafish heart. We have demonstrated that there is evolutionary conservation in aspects of arterial pole development and that the bulbus arteriosus is akin the arterial trunk(s) of vertebrates possessing a four chambered heart. We have also provided evidence for the presence of a conus arteriosus in the zebrafish (a distinct collar of myocardium surrounding and supporting the outflow valve). I am currently constructing fate maps of the zebrafish embryo at pre-gastrulation and early developmental stages to ascertain the origin of this region of the heart.
A second, related project is aimed at determining whether there is a secondary heart field in the zebrafish. In amniote vertebrate models such as the chick and mouse (and recently demonstrated in Xenopus, too), the early heart tube does not contain all of the myocardium necessary to form a fully functional heart. The arterial pole is formed by the later addition of cells from the secondary heart field (not to be confused with 'second' or 'anterior' heart fields!!). These cells migrate in from the pharyngeal region and contribute myocardium to the distal outflow tract (truncus) and smooth muscle to the tunica media of the arterial trunk, thus forming the junction between the heart and the arteries. Early results from zebrafish suggest that a similar population of cells is added to the arterial pole from the dorsal wall of the pericardial sac after formation of the heart tube, almost certainly adding smooth muscle to the bulbus arteriosus. I am investigating whether this region also contributes myocardium to the ouitflow tract.
I am also interested in how environmental contaminants, such as PCBs and dioxins, exert their toxic effects and cause serious cardiac defects in many species, including zebrafish. We are currently researching the mechanisms of toxicity of such compounds in a zebrafish model of human hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

Hami, D., Grimes, A.C., Tsai, H.J., and Kirby, M.L. (2011) Zebrafish cardiac development requires a conserved secondary heart field. Development (Cambridge, England). 138(11):2389-2398
Grimes, A.C., DurĂ¡n, A.C., Sans-Coma, V., Hami, D., Santoro, M.M., and Torres, M. (2010) Phylogeny informs ontogeny: a proposed common theme in the arterial pole of the vertebrate heart. Evolution & development. 12(6):552-567
Grimes, A.C., Erwin, K.N., Stadt, H.A., Hunter, G.L., Gefroh, H.A., Tsai, H.J., and Kirby, M.L. (2008) PCB126 Exposure Disrupts Zebrafish Ventricular and Branchial but Not Early Neural Crest Development. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 106(1):193-205
Grimes, A.C. (2007) The zebrafish as a model of ventricular and arterial pole malformations. Ph.D. Thesis. :230p
Grimes, A.C., Stadt, H.A., Shepherd, I.T., and Kirby, M.L. (2006) Solving an enigma: Arterial pole development in the zebrafish heart. Developmental Biology. 290(2):265-276